Point of Order and Appeal are heart of democracy

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In our view, the motions Point of Order and Appeal are the heart of our democracy. They provide the mechanism to stop a dictatorial chair who is acting like a “boss.” They are essential  for every local government body, nonprofit board, and any group that functions on democratic principles. Learn how to use them to ensure that the group is the final authority.

In the discussion below, whenever we say “member,” we mean a voting member of the governing body.

What is a Point of Order?

Point of Order is a motion that requires the chair to abide by the organization’s rules or parliamentary rules, or to require another member to abide by the rules. If an error isn’t obvious, the member may have to briefly explain how the rules are being broken.

This motion is made by just one member and in most circumstances the motion must be made at the time of the rule violation. When this motion is made it immediately and temporarily stops business until the Point of Order is ruled on by the chair, who will either agree with the member and enforce the rules, or may disagree with the member. Once the chair rules that the Point of Order was well taken (correct) or not well taken (incorrect), the business that was interrupted then continues (unless the chair’s ruling is immediately appealed).

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How does a member raise a Point of Order?

The member who sees a rule violation and wants the rule enforced should call out, “Point of Order!” or stand up and say, “I rise to a Point of Order.” If necessary, you may interrupt a speaker, but don’t do this lightly!

What happens next with a Point of Order?

The chair should say, “State your point.” The member then explains the problem. Finally, the chair gives a ruling.

  • If the chair agrees with the Point of Order, the chair says, “The point is well taken” and enforces the rule.
  • If the chair disagrees, the chair says, “The point is not well taken,” and moves on with the business at hand.

Can a member raise a Point of Order about the chair’s actions?

Yes. Everyone in the meeting must follow the rules. If this happens, the chair issues a ruling on his own action.

Can a member of the public or the audience who is not a member of the body raise a Point of Order?

No. Only a member of the body itself can raise a Point of Order.

Sample script for “Point of Order”

Member A: Chair, I rise to a Point of Order.

Chair: State your point.

Member A: My esteemed colleague has used the term “cream-faced loon” in referring to the mayor of Dinoville. Under Robert’s Rules of Order, insults are inappropriate.

Chair: The point is well taken, and members will refrain from using this term.

What should members do when they disagree with a ruling by the chair?

A member can appeal the chair’s ruling (which must be seconded). This tells the chair that two members are in disagreement with the chair’s interpretation and want the body to decide it for themselves. The motion must be made immediately. If other business intervenes, then it is too late to appeal the chair’s decision or ruling.

When the Appeal is made, it immediately and temporarily stops the pending business until a decision is reached on the Appeal. After a vote is taken on the Appeal by the members, the business that was interrupted then continues.

How is an Appeal conducted?

A member stands and without waiting to be recognized, says: “I disagree with the ruling by the chair.” The chair must recognize an Appeal, even if worded simply as, “I don’t think that’s right – I disagree with you.” The formal wording is, “I appeal from the decision of the chair.” The chair then processes the motion, which may or may not be debatable.

Read more about how to process a Motion to Appeal, including a sample script, in this blog posting, “Keep the chair in line using Appeal.”

It bears repeating that Point of Order and Appeal are the heart of our democracy. Learn to use these vital tools from Robert’s Rules of Order, and ensure that the group is the final authority.

Many thanks to Beverly Przybylski, PRP, for providing the original content of this blog post. Any errors are, of course, the responsibility of Jurassic Parliament.

Download this article, Remedies for abuse of authority by the chair in a meeting, to see the exact process described in Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, 12th edition.

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See also these posts about Point of Order and Appeal:

What justifies calling a Point of Order?

Keep the chair in line using appeal

Who may raise a point of order at council meetings?

Remedies for abuse of authority by the chair in a meeting

Removing the chair during a meeting

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Ann Macfarlane

Ann G. Macfarlane is a Professional Registered Parliamentarian. She offers an interactive and user-friendly way to master the key points for effective, efficient and fair meetings. Her background as a diplomat and Russian translator enables her to connect with elected officials and nonprofit board directors and give them the tools they need for success. She is the author of Mastering Council Meetings: A guidebook for elected officials and local governments.


  1. Joe on January 19, 2019 at 8:14 pm

    Thanks so much for the healthy reminder about how a Point of Order is supposed to be handled.

    • Ann Macfarlane on January 20, 2019 at 2:09 pm

      Great to hear from you! Thanks!

  2. Joe Torres on January 21, 2019 at 4:35 am

    What is the process when a committee calls for nomination of candidates?

    • Ann Macfarlane on January 21, 2019 at 8:29 am

      Joe, this is a complicated question. You can read about it in Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, 11th edition,, which is the only authorized edition, on pp. 433-436, “Nominations by a committee.” Best wishes – Ann

  3. Joe Torres on February 13, 2019 at 1:29 pm

    Can open political meetings be audio/video recorded

    • Ann Macfarlane on February 13, 2019 at 1:44 pm

      Joe, as far as I am aware, local government meetings that are subject to an “open meetings” law, which is most of them, can be recorded by audio or video, provided that the recording does not disrupt the proceedings. This issue is regulated at the state level, so you will need to connect with someone who is familiar with the laws that apply in your state. Thanks for writing!